Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 214-216

Unusual presentation of Takayasu's arteritis as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Department of Pediatrics, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Syed Ahmed Zaki
Room No. 509, New RMO Quarters, LTMG Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.85900

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Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory disease primarily affecting aorta and its branches. It mainly affects young females in the age group of 10-30 years. Various atypical presentations of Takayasu's arteritis have been described in children. These atypical presentations can cause delayed diagnosis resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuroradiologic condition associated with headache, seizures, altered sensorium, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on neuroimaging. We report a child with Takayasu's arteritis who presented a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. He also had associated abdominal tuberculosis for which anti-tuberculous treatment was started. PRES was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. The child was started on nifedipine and propranolol. The child regained his consciousness within 48 h of admission. Prompt treatment of hypertension led to rapid reversal of neurological symptoms. In view of hypertension a computed tomography aortogram was done, which showed features suggestive of high grade (>75%) focal proximal left renal artery stenosis. EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism)/PReS (Paediatric Rheumatology European Society) consensus criteria was used for the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis in our patient. Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty of the stenotic left renal artery was performed. Post-angioplasty, nifedipine was gradually omitted and oral propranolol was continued.

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