Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
  Users Online: 2354 Home | About the Journal | InstructionsCurrent Issue | Back IssuesLogin      Print this page Email this page  Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 16-23

Therapy of NMO spectrum disorders

1 Department of Neurology, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Kolkata, India
2 Department of Neurology, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Arabinda Mukherjee
40A, Lake Temple Road, Kolkata - 700 029, West Bengal
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.164818

Rights and Permissions

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating condition of the central nervous system often associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies manifesting as severe optic neuritis and long segment myelitis with tendency to relapse. Seronegative patients and who do not meet the NMO criteria are classified as having NMO Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), but are treated identically to clinically definite NMO. Acute relapse is treated with intravenous methylprednisolone for 5 days with or without subsequent treatment with plasma exchange (PE). This must be followed by oral steroid to prevent rebound worsening and further relapse. For relapse prevention, immunosuppressive agents that have been found to be effective are azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone; although none of which have been validated in randomized, controlled trial. Some patients do relapse with monotherapy, and switching to more effective agent or use of combination therapy is beneficial in such situation. There is no consensus about the duration of preventive therapy, but generally 2-3 years of relapse-free period is considered the minimum, taking into account the risks of long-term toxicity of these agents.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded367    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal