Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 505-509

Serological markers associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in South India

1 Department of Neurology, KS Hegde Medical College, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology and Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics, Tohoku University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; Department of Neurology, Brain Institute, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
3 Department of Neurology, Yonezawa National Hospital, Yonezawa, Yamagata, Japan
4 Department of Neurology and Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics, Tohoku University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Lekha Pandit
Department of Neurology, KS Hegde Medical College, Nitte University, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.192389

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Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) represent 20% of all demyelinating disorders in South India. No studies have determined the seroprevalence to both antibodies against aquaporin-4* and antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (anti-MOG+) in this population. Objective: To identify and characterize seropositive patients for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (anti-AQP4+) and anti-MOG+ in South India. Materials and Methods: We included 125 consecutive patients (15 children) who were serologically characterized using live transfected cells to human M23-AQP4 or full-length MOG. Results: Among a total of 125 patients, 30.4% of patients were anti-AQP4+, 20% were anti-MOG+, and 49.6% were seronegative. No patient was positive for both. Anti-MOG+ patients represented 28.7% (25/87) of seronegative NMOSD. In comparison to anti-AQP4+ patients, anti-MOG+ patients were commonly male, had less frequent attacks and milder disability on expanded disability status score scale. Seronegative patients were also predominantly male, 36% (9/25) had monophasic longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and disability was comparable with anti-AQP4+ patients. Lumbar cord involvement was common in anti-MOG+ and seronegatives, whereas anti-AQP4+ patients had more cervical lesions. Conclusion: Anti-AQP4+/anti-MOG + patients accounted for nearly half of the patients suspected of having NMOSD in South India, indicating that antibody testing may be useful on the management of subgroups with different prognosis.

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