Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 209-213

Intracranial atherosclerosis is the most common stroke subtype: Ten-year data from hyderabad stroke registry (India)

1 Department of Neurology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Neurology and Clinical Research, Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Subhash Kaul
Department of Neurology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_86_18

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Aim: Limited data regarding stroke subtypes exist from South Asian countries. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ischemic stroke subtypes and their associated risk factors, in a 10-year long hospital-based registry in the South Indian city of Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: The Hyderabad stroke registry systematically collected clinical, radiological, and laboratory data of fully investigated consecutive stroke patients and studied pattern of ischemic stroke subtypes and their risk factor association. Results: The cohort comprised of 2642 patients: 2072 (78.4%) were ischemic and 570 (21.6%) were hemorrhagic strokes. In the ischemic stroke cohort, the mean age was 54.1 years and 1622 (78.3%) were men. The most common ischemic stroke subtype was large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) comprising 37.6% (n = 779), followed by small vessel occlusion comprising 19.9% (n = 413) and cardioembolism 11% (n = 228). Stroke of other determined etiologies constituted 4.2% (n = 86) and stroke of undetermined etiology was observed in 27.3%. Among patients with LAA, 610 (78.3%) patients had intracranial and 169 (21.7%) had extracranial disease as the underlying mechanism. Risk factor profile demonstrated that hyperlipidemia was significantly associated with LAA and ischemic heart disease with cardioembolic strokes. Conclusions: The study reveals a distinct pattern of ischemic stroke subtypes in the Indian context that has overlapping features of registries from West and East Asian countries. Both large artery and small vessel diseases are substantially represented with a predominance of intracranial atherosclerosis. The study results have significant implications for developing preventive and management strategies for stroke care and research in India.

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