Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 63-68

Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of optic nerve sheath diameter as a means of detecting raised intracranial pressure in neuro-trauma patients: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of CTVS, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shruti Sharma
Department of Critical Care Medicine, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab - 141 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_51_20

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Background: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement is emerging as a noninvasive method to estimate raised ICP. It is helpful in situations where imaging of brain or direct ICP monitoring is not available or feasible. Use of ONSD is still limited, so this study was planned to determine whether the bedside sonographic measurement of ONSD can reliably predict elevated ICP in neuro-trauma patients. Methodology: After approval from Hospital Ethics Committee, this cross-sectional study was conducted in hundred traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with suspected elevated ICP, admitted to neurosurgical ICU. The severity of brain injury was assessed according to Glasgow coma scale (GCS), initial CT scan findings, and revised trauma score (RTS). All patients underwent ONSD sonography of the eye and CT scan subsequently. ONSD of ≥5.0 mm was considered as a benchmark of raised ICP. Results: Mean ONSD of the study group with ONSD ≥5.0 mm was 5.6 ± 0.3 mm. ONSD was raised in 46% of patients, more so in patients with low GCS (3-6). The relationship of ONSD with GCS, CT scan findings, and RTS was highly significant. The sensitivity of the bedside sonographic measurement ONSD to detect raised ICP was 93.2% and specificity was 91.1% when compared with CT scan. Positive Predictive Value of the ONSD measurement was 89.1% and the negative predictive value was 94.4%. Conclusion: Ultrasonographic assessment of ONSD is a reliable modality to detect raised ICP in neurotrauma patients. It can be helpful in the early initiation of treatment of elevated ICP, thus preventing secondary brain damage.

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