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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 524-530

High-resolution vessel wall imaging in primary angiitis of central nervous system


1 Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
2 Imaging Sciences and Intervention Radiology, Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
3 Comprehensive Stroke Care Program, Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. P N Sylaja
Professor of Neurology, In-Charge, Comprehensive Stroke Care Program, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Trivandrum - 695 011, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_106_21

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Background: High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HRVWI) can aid in differentiating the various intracranial vasculopathies, but has been sparingly used in the diagnosis of primary angiitis of central nervous system (PACNS). This study is aimed to describe the vessel wall imaging characteristics of PACNS. Materials and Methods: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of PACNS according to the Calabrese and Mallek criteria who had abnormal HRVWI were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Magnetic resonance image of brain, conventional four-vessel cerebral digital subtraction angiogram, and HRVWI were read by a neuroradiologist. The vessel wall parameters assessed were T1W and T2W appearances, pattern of wall thickening and contrast enhancement, and remodeling index. Results: HRVWI done in 21 patients with PACNS yielded abnormality in 20 (95.2%) who were included in the analysis. The mean age at presentation was 42.55 ± 9.48 years and 14 (70%) were males. The median number of vessels involved were four (range 2–12). The commonest vessels affected were proximal middle cerebral artery (70%) and internal carotid artery (55%). Vessel wall thickening was concentric, eccentric, and absent in 12 (60%), 1 (5%), and 7 (35%) patients, respectively. Vessel wall enhancement was diffuse in 17 (85%), eccentric in 1 (5%), and absent in 2 (10%) patients. One patient had T2W hyperintense stenotic lesion. Remodeling index was negative in 11 (55%) patients. Conclusion: Distinctive vessel wall appearances were observed by HRVWI in PACNS, concentric vessel wall thickening and enhancement being more frequent. Hence, HRVWI can be considered as an additional noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of PACNS.


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