Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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AIAN REVIEW
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-53

Wilson's disease update: An Indian perspective


1 Department of Neurology, Medical Super Speciality Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Neurology, MIOT Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Bindu Thankappan
835, 10th Street, Syndicate Bank Colony, Anna Nagar West, Chennai - 600101, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_1070_21

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Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to ATP7B gene mutation, resulting in defective copper metabolism, with liver and brain being primarily affected. Being a treatable disorder, early diagnosis and proper management of WD may result in near complete recovery. It has received significant attention over the past 50 years, with several Indian contributions. This study collates published Indian studies on WD in Pubmed and Embase databases and puts them in perspective. Several Indian case series suggest that WD may be more prevalent than thought. Commonly detected ATP7B mutation in India is p.C271X. Although initial Indian series reported significant osseomuscular presentation, neuropsychiatric and hepatic manifestations dominated the later reports. A significant male predominance is observed in Indian series. Pure hepatic presentation starts earlier than neurological or osseomuscular WD. A positive family history may be seen in nearly 50% of Indian WD cases with a high rate of consanguinity. Up to two-third of Indian cases may be initially misdiagnosed, with a mean diagnostic delay of up to 2 years. Abnormalities in serum ceruloplasmin and 24-hour urinary copper has been reported in more than four-fifth cases. Brain MRI is abnormal in nearly all neurological WD cases. Copper chelation remains the mainstay of therapy, with D-penicillamine being the most widely used chelator in India. Global Assessment Scale for WD is a comprehensive tool for clinical monitoring. Hepatic presentation carries a five-time higher mortality risk than neurological, with up to 90% Indian neurological WD cases recovering to pre-morbid functionality with adequate therapy.


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