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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 239-245

A comparative analysis of clinical and imaging features of Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody positive, Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive and double seronegative subtypes of Neuro Myelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)


Department of and Neurology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Salil Gupta
Department of Neurology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, Delhi Cantt, New Delhi - 110 010
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_406_21

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Objectives: Study was conducted with aim of comparing subtypes types of NMOSD based on serology. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients ≥18 years were included satisfying IPND 2015 criteria. Three groups were created based on seropositivity for AQP4 antibody, MOG antibody or double seronegative. Demographic, clinical and imaging were compared using regression analysis. Results: Forty-six patients, 28 (60.9%) AQP4+, 11 (23.9%) MOG + and remaining 7 (15.2%) double seronegative were included. Thirty-seven patients (80.4%) had presenting symptoms localized to optic nerve and/or cord [AQP4 + 22 (78.5%), MOG + 9 (81.8%) and double seronegative 6 (85.7%)]. Presentation with bilateral optic neuritis was more common in AQP4- patients. Twenty (86.8%) out of the 23 patients who had relapsing disease localized to optic nerve and/or spinal cord [AQP4 + 13/14 (92.8%), MOG + 3/5 (60%) and double seronegative 4/4 (100%)]. Relapses were more common in AQP4+ (77% vs 12% vs10%). In AQP4 negative group disability (EDSS 4.2 vs 3.3) and progression index was relatively less (1.6 vs 1.1). CSF pleocytosis (38.8% vs 17.9%) and raised proteins (66.6% vs 32.1%) were also more common. Optic nerve MRI (>50% optic nerve and chiasma involvement) was more commonly abnormal in AQP4 negative (52.9% vs 31.2%). Regression analysis revealed females to be significantly higher in AQP4 positive NMOSD (89.3%) when compared to MOG positive (36.4%) and double seronegative (42.9%). Conclusion: Gender was the only significant difference between the three groups. There was trend towards greater disability and more relapses in AQP4 + groups.


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