Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 246-255

Comparison of clinical and radiological features of Aquaporin4 (AQP-4) antibody positive Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) and Anti Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (Anti-MOG) syndrome-our experience from Northwest India

1 Department of Neurology, University SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 NIMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Radiodiagnosis, University SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajendra Singh Jain
Senior Professor and Head Neurology Unit, University S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302 004
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_860_21

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Background: More and more cases of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody are being diagnosed with the availability of laboratory tests helping us to know the differing patterns from AQP-4 antibody disease and we need to understand the natural course, treatment, and prognosis in a better way. Objectives: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and anti-MOG syndromes are immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly involve the optic nerves and the spinal cord. We conducted this study to compare demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of AQP-4 antibody and MOG antibody positive patients. Methods: A single-centre retrospective observational study from a large tertiary care university centre of Northwest India conducted during 2019--2021. We screened all patients presenting with acute CNS demyelinating attacks and recruited total 47 patients of which 25 were positive for AQP4 antibody and 22 were positive for MOG antibody. No patient tested positive for both antibodies. Data were collected using a standardized format including demographic, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data. Results: In our study, total 47 patients were included, amongst which 25 patients were AQP4 antibody and 22 patients were MOG antibody positive. Though there was no gender preponderance, pediatric patients were more frequently affected in MOG antibody positive group. In AQP-4 antibody positive patients, myelitis was most common presenting clinical feature followed by optic neuritis (ON), simultaneous ON with myelitis, and brainstem syndrome. In MOG antibody positive group, myelitis was the commonest phenotype followed by ON, brainstem syndrome, and cerebral syndrome. The neuroimaging revealed involvement of medulla mainly area postrema, cervicodorsal spinal cord and extension of cervical lesion up to brainstem more commonly in AQP4 antibody group, on the other hand involvement of upper brainstem (midbrain and pons), cortex, and conus was more common in MOG antibody group. Conclusion: We have made an attempt to find differentiating features in AQP-4 vs. MOG antibody positive cases but they were of no statistically significance value as the numbers were small. Further larger studies may prove helpful in planning better strategies in two groups.

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