Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 417-421

Outcome of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) during peripartum period: A hospital-based observational study

1 Department of Neurology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Anil Kumar Patra
Department of Neurology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_362_22

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Objective: 1. To study the clinical profile, progression and outcome of GBS during peripartum period in a tertiary care hospital. 2. To identify the determinants of outcome in GBS during peripartum period. Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute, autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system triggered by a bacterial or viral infection or other antecedent events. Modern day critical care has dramatically improved the outcome of GBS. GBS during pregnancy is rare with an annual incidence of 2.8/100,000 population. Pregnancy itself is a life-threatening condition and full of complications. GBS during pregnancy makes its more complicated in terms of both maternal and fetal care during peripartum period. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted by the Department of Neurology, Gauhati Medical College including 36 patients of GBS presenting during peripartum period in between December 2019 and November 2021. Their clinical and electrophysiological features were analyzed. Hughes grading, EGRIS, mEGOS, MRC sum score were used. The fetal outcome was observed and patients were followed up for GBS outcome at 3 months and 6 months. Results: The mean age of patients was 25.97 years. AIDP was the most common subtype found in 21 (58.33%) patients followed by AMAN in 7 (19.4%), AMSAN in 3 (8.33%). In 3 cases NCS was equivocal and in 3 cases inexcitable. Respiratory distress was found in 13 (36.1%) cases, out of which 4 (11.1%) required mechanical ventilation and 1 (2.8%) died. The pre-term birth rate and stillbirth rate were 35.7% (n = 10) and 8.33% (n = 3), respectively with 66.7% (n = 24) spontaneous vaginal delivery(SVD). At 3 month 26 (72.2%) had complete recovery. 5 (13.9%) and 4 (11.1%) had partial and poor recovery, respectively. 78.9% of primigravidae had complete recovery in comparison to 64.7% in multigravidae indicating better outcome in primigravidae in this study. Conclusion: The outcome of GBS during peripartum period is favorable. Primigravidae are more commonly affected but have better outcome than the multigravidae. The risk of developing GBS in pregnancy decreases significantly after delivery and is minimal after 2 weeks. GBS is not an indication for LSCS. Stillbirth rate and preterm birth rate is higher in pregnancy associated with GBS without fearsome neonatal complications.

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