Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1067-1074

The clinical diagnostic utility of array CGH in children with syndromic microcephaly

1 Department of Pediatrics, Centre of Rare Diseases, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India
3 School of Life Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Mohammed Faruq
CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_202_22

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Background: A prospective study using array CGH in children with Syndromic microcephaly from a tertiary pediatric healthcare centre in India. Aim: To identify the copy number variations causative of microcephaly detected through chromosomal array CGH. Patients and Methods: Of the 60 patients, 33 (55%) males and 27 (45%) females who consulted the Rare Disease Clinic at Department of Pediatrics, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, with developmental delay/facial dysmorphism/congenital anomalies in combination with microcephaly were included. Exclusion Criteria: Children with acquired or non-genetic causes of microcephaly, craniosynostosis, metabolic diseases, known chromosomal aneuploidy such as trisomy 21, 13, and 18 and abnormal karyotype were excluded. The cohort was analyzed by array CGH in order to identify potentially pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs). Results: Clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in 20/60 (33.3%) patients, variant of uncertain significance (VOUS) in 4/60 (6.6%) cases and benign CNVs in 3/60 (5%) of total cases. Out of 20 cases with pathogenic CNVs, 12 (60%) patients detected with a deletion, five (25%) patients with duplication and three (15%) patients resulted with a complex chromosomal rearrangement. Twelve cases present CNVs containing genes known to be implicated in microcephaly etiology. Conclusion: This research highlights the contribution of submicroscopic chromosomal changes in the etiology of microcephaly in combination with developmental delay/facial dysmorphism/congenital anomalies (syndromic microcephaly). Our studies provide more insights into the benefits derived by using array CGH analysis in patients with syndromic microcephaly.

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