Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January 2023
Volume 26 | Issue 7 (Supplement)
Page Nos. 1-42

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Vestibular rehabilitation of the persons affected by Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) by physical therapy and repositioning maneuvers p. 1
Ajay Kumar Vats, Sudhir Kothari, Anirban Biswas
Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) mainly comprises physical therapies that encourage head, eye, and truncal movements, accelerating the recovery of patients with acute peripheral labyrinthine dysfunction. VRT aims to improve vestibular hypofunction by reinforcing vestibulo-ocular, vestibulospinal, and vestibulocollic reflexes. An asymmetry in peripheral vestibular inputs from the pair of membranous labyrinths to the central nervous system frequently results from vestibular lithiasis, causing benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The article discusses the pathophysiology, subtypes, and diagnostic oculomotor patterns generated during positional tests in each subtype of BPPV. Accurate identification of the pathophysiology (canalolithiasis versus cupulolithiasis) as well as the involved semicircular canal (localization and lateralization) is crucial for the unerring VRT of BPPV by physical therapies and/or repositioning maneuvers. The article elaborates the currently known variants of BPPV, the anatomico-physiological correlation between otoconial location and oculomotor patterns generated during the diagnostic positional tests in terms of the direction, latency, and duration of the elicited positional nystagmus [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]; [Table 2]. A detailed description of the treatment of different BPPV subtypes with repositioning maneuvers and/or physical therapy is given [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]; [Table 3].
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Effect of remote ischemic conditioning on heart rate responses to walking in people with multiple sclerosis p. 10
Noelle Chung Kai Xin, Krishnan Nair, Chayaporn Chotiyarnwong, Kathleen Baster, Ellen Buckley, Claudia Mazza, Ali Ali, Sheharyar Baig
Background: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), exposure of body parts to brief periods of circulatory occlusion and reperfusion, has been shown to improve cardiovascular responses to exercise in healthy individuals but its effects in people with MS are unknown. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of RIC on heart rate responses to walking in people with MS. Design: Double blind randomized controlled trial Setting: Multiple sclerosis clinic of tertiary care center teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Methods: Three cycles of RIC were delivered by occluding the upper arm with a blood pressure cuff inflated to a pressure of 30 mmHg above the systolic blood pressure. In the sham group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 30 mmHg below diastolic blood pressure. Heart rate responses to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the tolerability of RIC using a numerical rating scale for discomfort (0-10), and adverse events were studied. Results: Seventy-five participants (RIC -38 and Sham-37) completed the study. RIC was well tolerated. Compared to sham, RIC significantly decreased the rise in heart rate (P = 0.04) and percentage of predicted maximum heart rate (P = 0.016) after the 6MWT. Conclusion: RIC was well tolerated and improved the heart rate response to walking in people with MS. Further studies on RIC in the management of MS are needed.
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Multi-modal rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease and related disorders p. 15
Alvee Saluja, Vinay Goyal, Rajinder K Dhamija
Long-term use of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with reduction in efficacy and disabling dyskinesias. The current medical or surgical treatment modalities are ineffective for atypical parkinsonism syndromes. Hence, there is a need for holistic and cost-effective non-pharmacological interventions that act via multiple mechanisms to improve motor as well as non-motor symptoms among PD patients. Rehabilitation strategies focusing on multiple mechanisms can lead to improvement in certain symptoms among PD patients, which may be refractory to medical and surgical therapy. However, there is scanty literature available on the role of various rehabilitation strategies in patients with atypical parkinsonism patients. Multiple rehabilitation strategies such physiotherapy, aerobic exercises, strength/resistance exercises, treadmill training, cueing, dance and music, speech language therapy, occupational therapy, hydrotherapy, and martial arts have been found to improve motor as well as non-motor symptoms among PD patients. Newer modalities such as virtual-reality-based devices, exergaming, wearable sensors, and robotic prosthetic devices may be exciting future prospects in rehabilitation among patients with PD and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. This narrative review assessed and summarized the current evidence regarding the role of various rehabilitation strategies in PD and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Furthermore, evidence regarding recent advancements in rehabilitation for patients with parkinsonism was highlighted. Despite the beneficial effect of rehabilitation in PD, there is still scanty literature available from India on rehabilitation strategies among PD patients. Larger prospective randomized control trials from India and other low- and middle-income countries, focusing on various rehabilitation strategies among PD patients, are an unmet need.
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Gait training with robotic exoskeleton assisted rehabilitation system in patients with incomplete traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury: A pilot study and review of literature p. 26
Anupam Gupta, Naveen B Prakash, Preethi R Honavar
Objective: This pilot study aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of robotic gait training and its' effects on gait parameters in individuals with incomplete motor spinal cord injury-SCI (AIS C and AIS D). Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary research center with indigenously developed Robotic Exoskeleton Assisted Rehabilitation Systems (REARS). Primary outcome measures used were the ten-meter walk test (10MWT), two-minute walk test (2MWT), six-minute walk test (6MWT), the timed up and go test (TUG), the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II), and the spinal cord independence measure version III (SCIM III) at baseline, 12 sessions, and after 24 sessions (endpoint) of training. At baseline, individuals who could not perform 10MWT, TUG, and 6MWT were grouped in G1 for analysis. Participants in G2 were able to perform all the tests at baseline. Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and duration of illness was 41 (24) years and 167 (147) days, respectively. Five out of seven participants had non-traumatic etiology and five were males. After completing training, participants in G1 were able to complete the 10MWT, 6MWT, and TUG, and the mean (SD) scores were 0.2 m/s (0.2), 66.3 m (61.2) and 113.3 s (117.4), respectively. Participants in G2 could perform the TUG test 13.5 s faster at the end of the study (11.9 s vs 25.4 s). The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for TUG was 10.8 s. In G2, the pre-post training change in mean score of 10MWT and 6MWT was 0.11 m/s and 42 m, respectively; these values approached the MCID for these measures. None of the participants had any injury during training. Conclusions: Robotic gait training with REARS is safe and feasible. Such training may lead to an improvement in balance and walking capacity.
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A scoping review of recent advancements in intervention and outcome measures for post-stroke cognitive impairments p. 32
Dimple Dawar, Sureshkumar Kamalakannan, Nistara S Chawla, Jibil T Mathew, Esha Mehmood, Unnati Bhatnagar, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian
Background: Cognitive deficit is one of the common impairments that occur post stroke and have a major effect on the quality of life of stroke survivors. However, the intervention and outcome measures used to remediate post-stroke cognitive impairments are diverse and highly heterogeneous. Therefore, a review of intervention and outcome measures for post-stroke cognitive impairments was carried out. Objectives: To review all available information on the recent advancements in intervention and outcome measures for post-stroke cognitive impairments. Methods: An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library with key search terms between 2001 and 2021. The search results were systematically screened, and data was independently extracted by three reviewers. The data was thematically analyzed and narratively synthesized. Results: The search retrieved 2018 records, and we included 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies targeted global cognitive deficits in ischemic stroke patients in the chronic phase. We categorized data based on the type of cognitive impairment, cognitive- domain targeted, intervention, and available outcome measures for post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation. Attention, memory, executive function, and global cognition were the common cognitive components targeted, managed, and assessed using an outcome measure. We found that technology is replacing conventional approaches to improve cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Regardless of many new developments in post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation interventions driven by technology, there is limited data available on actual implementation as a scalable solution. There is an extensive need for future research for evidence-based assessment and management of cognitive impairments in post-stroke rehabilitation.
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