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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease in children: A treatable neurometabolic disorder


1 Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Suvasini Sharma,
Associate Professor, Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi - 110 001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_952_20

Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a rare, autosomal recessive, treatable, neurometabolic disorder associated with biallelic pathogenic variations in the SLC19A3 gene. The condition may present as an early-childhood encephalopathy, an early-infantile lethal encephalopathy with lactic acidosis, with or without infantile spasms, or a late-onset Wernicke-like encephalopathy. The key radiological features are bilateral, symmetrical lesions in the caudate, putamen, and medial thalamus, with variable extension into the brain stem, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. Treatment is life long and includes initiation of high dose biotin and thiamine. Genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. The prognosis depends on the time from diagnosis to the time of vitamin supplementation. The genotype-phenotype correlations are not clear yet, but the early infantile phenotype portends a poorer prognosis. We provide a brief overview of the disorder and emphasize the initiation of high-dose biotin and thiamine in infants and children with unexplained encephalopathy and basal ganglia involvement.


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