Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Vestibular rehabilitation of the persons affected by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) by physical therapy and repositioning maneuvers

1 Department of Medicine and Neurology, Chaudhary Hospital and Medical Research Centre Private Limited, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Neurology, Poona Hospital and Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Vertigo and Deafness Clinic, Institute of Neurotology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Ajay Kumar Vats,
6-A, B-Block, Shikarbadi, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_1105_21

Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) mainly comprises physical therapies that encourage head, eye, and truncal movements, accelerating the recovery of patients with acute peripheral labyrinthine dysfunction. VRT aims to improve vestibular hypofunction by reinforcing vestibulo-ocular, vestibulospinal, and vestibulocollic reflexes. An asymmetry in peripheral vestibular inputs from the pair of membranous labyrinths to the central nervous system frequently results from vestibular lithiasis, causing benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The article discusses the pathophysiology, subtypes, and diagnostic oculomotor patterns generated during positional tests in each subtype of BPPV. Accurate identification of the pathophysiology (canalolithiasis versus cupulolithiasis) as well as the involved semicircular canal (localization and lateralization) is crucial for the unerring VRT of BPPV by physical therapies and/or repositioning maneuvers. The article elaborates the currently known variants of BPPV, the anatomico-physiological correlation between otoconial location and oculomotor patterns generated during the diagnostic positional tests in terms of the direction, latency, and duration of the elicited positional nystagmus [Figures 1 and 2; Table 2]. A detailed description of the treatment of different BPPV subtypes with repositioning maneuvers and/or physical therapy is given [Figures 3-8; Table 3].

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    -  Kothari S
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