Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Fever, seizures and encephalopathy: From bush fires to firestorms

1 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Consultant Pediatric Neurology, Rainbow Children's Hospital, Marathahalli, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Consultant Pediatric Neurology, Rainbow Children's Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Division of Pediatric Neurology and Clinical Neurological Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada

Correspondence Address:
Asuri N Prasad,
Children's Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, ELL-411, 800 Commissioners Road East N6A 5W9, London, ON
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_12_22

Fever-associated seizures and febrile encephalopathy are common neurological problems in children. Infections of the nervous system are responsible for the majority of cases. However, there is a spectrum of infection-associated and inflammatory conditions associated with the triad of fever, seizures, and encephalopathy. Apart from complex febrile seizures and febrile status epilepticus, fever infection-related epilepsy syndrome of childhood (FIRES), infantile hemiconvulsion hemiplegia epilepsy syndrome (IHHE), acute encephalopathy with delayed diffusion restriction (AESD), acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANE), and reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) are age-related clinical phenotypes of fever-related epilepsy and encephalopathy. Awareness of these entities is important for appropriate diagnosis and the prompt use of immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive therapies. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical phenotypes, and management approaches of these fever-related seizure and encephalopathy states.

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