Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Retinal degeneration in patients with wilson's disease: An oct study in Asian Indian population

1 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Kashyap Eye Clinic, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Pramod Kumar Pal,
Professor, Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_865_21

Background: Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. We aimed to study the abnormalities in the retinal layers in patients with WD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: The study is a chart review of 16 patients with WD (six females) who underwent OCT at our hospital during follow-up visits. Spectral-domain OCT was performed in all subjects to assess the thickness of macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the data was compared with 14 healthy controls (three females). Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.81 ± 7.47 years and controls was 26.86 ± 9.95 years. The mean age at the onset of the illness was 16.25 ± 5.57 years (range 11–28 years) with the mean duration of illness being 4.81 ± 3.31 years at the final follow-up examination. The mean macular thickness was found to be significantly reduced in patients (232.13 ± 19.39) when compared to controls (271.30 ± 17.32 μm; P = 0.01). There was a significant difference in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform (GCIP) layer between the patients (86.83 ± 8.20 μm) and controls (97.72 ± 5.31 μm; P = 0.01). In addition, the outer nuclear layer with the photoreceptor layer (ONL + PRL) thickness was also reduced in WD (93.90 ± 10.23 μm vs. 108.43 ± 10.00 μm; P = 0.01) There was no change in the RNFL thickness, between the two groups (P = 0.53). Conclusions: Abnormalities of the retinal layers were observed in the patients with WD. OCT is a non-invasive tool to identify and quantify the abnormalities of the retinal layers.

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    -  Bhattacharya A
    -  Stezin A
    -  Kamble N
    -  Mohammed Shereef P M
    -  Kashyap B
    -  Pal PK
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