Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Multi-Modal rehabilitation therapy in parkinson's disease and related disorders

1 Department of Neurology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Director-Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences, Medanta, Gurugram, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajinder K Dhamija,
Neurology Office, Room Number-1099, Old Building 1st Floor, Lady Hardinge, Medical College, New Delhi - 110 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_164_22

Long-term use of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with reduction in efficacy and disabling dyskinesias. The current medical or surgical treatment modalities are ineffective for atypical parkinsonism syndromes. Hence, there is a need for holistic and cost-effective non-pharmacological interventions that act via multiple mechanisms to improve motor as well as non-motor symptoms among PD patients. Rehabilitation strategies focusing on multiple mechanisms can lead to improvement in certain symptoms among PD patients, which 05 be refractory to medical and surgical therapy. However, there is scanty literature available on the role of various rehabilitation strategies in patients with atypical parkinsonism patients. Multiple rehabilitation strategies such physiotherapy, aerobic exercises, strength/resistance exercises, treadmill training, cueing, dance and music, speech language therapy, occupational therapy, hydrotherapy, and martial arts have been found to improve motor as well as non-motor symptoms among PD patients. Newer modalities such as virtual-reality-based devices, exergaming, wearable sensors, and robotic prosthetic devices 05 be exciting future prospects in rehabilitation among patients with PD and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. This narrative review assessed and summarized the current evidence regarding the role of various rehabilitation strategies in PD and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Furthermore, evidence regarding recent advancements in rehabilitation for patients with parkinsonism was highlighted. Despite the beneficial effect of rehabilitation in PD, there is still scanty literature available from India on rehabilitation strategies among PD patients. Larger prospective randomized control trials from India and other low- and middle-income countries, focusing on various rehabilitation strategies among PD patients, are an unmet need.

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    -  Saluja A
    -  Goyal V
    -  Dhamija RK
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