Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in India: A literature review

1 Department of Neurology, G. B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Debashish Chowdhury,
Department of Neurology, G. B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aian.aian_519_22

Anti N-methyl D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDAR-E) though rare, is currently considered as the commonest antibody mediated encephalitis in the world. No review on perspectives of NMDAR-E from India is available. The aim of the study was to review all the cases of NMDAR-E reported from India until June 2021 in terms of clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment, and perform a comparison of adult and paediatric cases. A literature review of NMDAR-E case reports/case series published from India till June 2021 was done. Demography, clinical profile, triggers, electroencephalography (EEG), neuroimaging, treatment details and outcomes were analysed. Sixteen case series and 35 case reports with a total of 249 cases were analysed. 82% of cases were from paediatric age group. The female to male ratio was 3:1. Psychiatric deficits, movement disorders, seizures, and language abnormalities were the most common clinical features. MRI brain abnormalities were seen in 45% patients. Electroencephalographic abnormalities were seen in 85% of patients. Infective triggers (herpes simplex virus and various other agents) were reported in 11% of the cases. Pediatric patients as compared with adults had more encephalopathy, autonomic dysfunctions, and normal imaging whereas the latter had more cognitive dysfunctions and delta brush pattern in electroencephalography (p<0.005). Therefore, to conclude, this literature review suggests that overall, the clinical spectrum of Indian cases is like cases described from other parts of the world. However, most reported cases from India belonged to paediatric age group who had more encephalopathy, autonomic dysfunctions, and normal brain imaging compared to adults. A few novel infectious agents as triggers were described from India.

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    -  Chowdhury D
    -  Panda AK
    -  Gupta A
    -  Chowdhury S
    -  Duggal A
    -  Koul A
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